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A mathematical model for the relationship between apparent viscosity, water cement/binder ratio of cement slurry, and high-efficiency water-reducing agent


The proportion of water to cement/binder and the addition-reducing agent greatly affect the rheological characteristics of cement slurry.

(Concrete water-reducing agent)

A study established a mathematical model to predict the apparent viscosity of cement slurries with different water-cement/binder ratios and polycarboxylate superplasticizer contents by introducing a power-law shear stress-strain relationship of non-Newtonian fluids into the Navier Stokes equations of motion. The established model was compared with the rheological experimental results, and its accuracy in simulating the apparent viscosity of cement slurry was verified.

These models provide insights into the rheological properties of cement slurry and may have practical applications in the construction industry. The following conclusion has been drawn.

(1) Considering w/b and parameter K in the Ostwald model, an ordinary differential equation was established. The description of the connection between shear stress and shear rate is founded on the Navier-Stokes equation and the Ostwald model.

(2) The first-order Bernstein polynomials with different water-cement/binder ratios were used to approximate the global constitutive relationship of the four-parameter formula for cement slurry in the rheological stage;

(3) Taking into account the effects of both electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance, a preliminary equation was developed to gauge the viscosity of high-performance water-reducing agents that are made

(4) The established model was validated through multiple rheological experiments with different water ash/binder ratios and high-efficiency water-reducing agent dosages.

It should be noted that the developed model is suitable for the initial mixing stage of cement slurry. Additional investigation is required to examine how various elements, like the hydration level and the inclusion of aggregates and other substances, impact the rheological properties of cement-based mixtures.

TRUNNANO Concrete water-reducing agent

A cement water-reducing agent is an important concrete admixture whose main function is to reduce the amount of water used in mixing and improve the strength, rheological properties, plasticity, and other properties of concrete while maintaining the basic unchanged concrete slump. The following are the main manifestations of cement water-reducing agents in application:

Reduce water consumption

Adding an appropriate amount of water-reducing agent can greatly reduce mixing water consumption and improve concrete strength and rheological properties without changing the proportions of various raw materials (excluding water) and the slump of concrete; this can save water resources, reduce the shrinkage rate during the concrete hardening process, and reduce the occurrence of defects such as cracks and voids.

Increase intensity

Incorporating a suitable water-reducing agent can optimize concrete production by enhancing its strength while maintaining the original proportions of raw materials, excluding cement; this significantly increases both early and later strength, with improvements of over 60% and 20%, respectively, compared to concrete without such agents; this, in turn, can improve the load-bearing capacity of building structures and extend their service life.

Improving rheological properties

Adding an appropriate amount of water-reducing agent without changing the proportion of various raw materials can significantly improve concrete’s rheological and plastic properties, allowing for self-flow, pumping, and vibration-free construction methods, improving construction speed and reducing construction energy consumption; this can improve construction efficiency, shorten the construction period, and reduce project costs.

(Concrete water-reducing agent)

Production performance cement

Adding multiple performance-enhancing substances to concrete mixtures can produce remarkable results, including delayed setting for high-strength concrete, increased strength for high-strength concrete, and unparalleled durability for ultra-high-strength concrete. These agents enhance the concrete’s performance by reducing the water required, resulting in improved strength and durability. Water-reducing agents for producing high-performance concrete are easy to operate, flexible to use, and economical; this can meet the requisitions of different projects and improve project quality and economic benefits.

Concrete water-reducing agent supplier

Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd.  (TRUNNANO) Luoyang City, Henan Province, China, is a reliable and high-quality global chemical material supplier and manufacturer. It has more than 12 years of experience providing ultra-high quality chemicals and nanotechnology materials, including molybdenum Silicide, nitride powder, graphite powder, sulfide powder, and 3D printing powder. If you are looking for a high-quality and cost-effective Concrete water reducing agent, you are welcome to contact us or inquire any time.

Performance improvement of polycarboxylate salts applied in concrete


In recent years, with the rapid development of the construction industry, concrete as a primary building material has received widespread attention for its performance and quality. As a new type of concrete additive, polycarboxylate salts have gradually entered people’s vision.


The role of polycarboxylates in concrete

  1. Enhanced performance: Polycarboxylate salts can react with the cement components in concrete to form stable binders, improving the strength and toughness of concrete.
  2. Improving work performance: Polycarboxylate salts can effectively reduce the viscosity of concrete, improve its fluidity, and make construction more convenient.
  3. Improving durability: Polycarboxylate salts can reduce the rate of water evaporation in concrete, reduce the generation of cracks, and thus improve the durability of concrete.

How to improve the performance of concrete with polycarboxylates

  1. Polycarboxylate salts can react with the cement components in concrete to form cementitious materials with high strength and toughness. These binders can effectively improve concrete’s tensile, compressive, and flexural strength while also improving its wear resistance and durability.
  2. Polycarboxylate salts can reduce the rate of water evaporation in concrete, reduce the generation of cracks, and thus improve the durability of concrete.
  3. Polycarboxylate salts can effectively reduce the viscosity of concrete, improve its fluidity, and make construction more convenient.

The working principle of polycarboxylates in concrete

The working principle of polycarboxylates in concrete is mainly based on their reaction with cement components. When polycarboxylates are mixed with cement, the carboxyl groups in their molecules react with calcium ions in the cement to form stable calcium carboxylate complexes. These composites form a uniformly distributed network structure in concrete, improving the overall performance of the concrete.


The influence of polycarboxylates on the strength, durability, and other properties of concrete

  1. Polycarboxylate reacts with cement components to generate high-strength binders, thereby improving the strength of concrete, including tensile, compressive, and flexural strength. This enables concrete to maintain stable and reliable performance in various applications.
  2. Polycarboxylate salts can reduce the rate of water evaporation in concrete, reduce the risk of drying shrinkage and cracking, and thus improve the durability of concrete. This means concrete can maintain more stable and long-lasting performance in the face of weather changes, chemical corrosion, and other environmental factors.
  3. Polycarboxylate salts can also improve the impermeability of concrete, reducing the risk of water and harmful substances penetrating. This further enhances the durability and service life of concrete.
  4. Polycarboxylate salts can also improve the construction performance of concrete, reduce the difficulty of mixing and pouring, and improve work efficiency. Meanwhile, the ability of polycarboxylates to reduce the viscosity of concrete makes it easier to operate and install, reducing the risk of construction errors and rework.

Limitations and precautions for the use of polycarboxylates in concrete

  1. Usage control: The usage of polycarboxylates needs to be coordinated according to specific engineering requirements and concrete mix proportions to avoid adverse effects caused by excessive use.
  2. Storage and transportation: Polycarboxylate salts should be memory in a dry and cool place, avoiding direct sunlight and high-temperature environments. During transportation, it is necessary to prevent severe vibrations and collisions.
  3. Compatibility with other additives: When using polycarboxylates, attention should be paid to compatibility with other concrete additives to avoid adverse reactions.


Luoyang Tongrun Nanotechnology Co., Ltd. is a supplier and manufacturer specializing in the preparation, research and development, and sales of ultra-high quality chemicals and nanomaterials.

It accepts payment through credit card, T/T, Western Union remittance, and PayPal. PDDN will ship goods to overseas customers via FedEx, DHL, sea or air freight. If you want high-quality polycarboxylates, please consult us; we will assist you.

How do you design and manufacture efficient motor drives using dual thyristor modules?


With the development of power electronics technology, dual thyristor modules are increasingly used in motor driver design as an essential power electronic device. This article will describe designing and building an efficient motor driver using dual thyristor modules.

(Dual thyristor module)

Introduction to dual thyristor module

The dual thyristor module comprises two or more transistors, which can achieve high-speed, high-precision switching control and is suitable for various motor driver designs. In dual thyristor modules, transistors are usually packed together to achieve higher efficiency and better performance in the circuit.

Design an efficient motor driver using dual thyristor modules

  1. Choose the suitable transistor

In dual thyristor modules, choosing a suitable transistor is crucial. Choosing transistors with lower on-voltage drops and higher switching speeds can reduce energy consumption and improve efficiency. Additionally, the voltage and current ratings of the transistor need to be considered to ensure that it can withstand the rated voltage and current of the motor.

  1. Optimize circuit design

In motor driver design, circuit optimization is essential. By optimizing the circuit design, energy consumption can be reduced, efficiency improved, and the size and cost of the driver reduced. For example, PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technology can achieve step-less speed regulation of motors while reducing energy consumption and improving efficiency.

  1. Add protection circuit

In motor driver design, adding protection circuits can improve the dependability and safety of the driver. For example, an overcurrent protection circuit can automatically cut off the power supply when the motor is overloaded to avoid motor damage and fire accidents. In addition, circuits such as under-voltage protection, over-voltage protection and temperature protection can also be added to guarantee the safe operation of the motor driver.

(Dual thyristor module)

Manufacturing efficient motor drivers for dual thyristor modules

  1. Choose the appropriate manufacturing process

When manufacturing efficient motor drives, appropriate manufacturing processes need to be selected; for example, surface mount technology can decrease the size and weight of the driver and improve its integration. In addition, using advanced packaging technology can further improve the reliability and performance of dual thyristor modules.

  1. Strictly control manufacturing quality

When manufacturing efficient motor drives, manufacturing quality needs to be strictly controlled; by using advanced testing technology and a strict quality control system, we can guarantee that the quality and performance of each component meet the requirements, thereby improving the overall performance and reliability of the motor driver.

In short, designing and manufacturing efficient motor drives using dual thyristor modules requires consideration of multiple factors, including the type, rated voltage, current and speed of the motor, as well as the drive’s efficiency, volume, weight and cost. By optimizing design, selecting appropriate transistors and manufacturing processes, and strictly controlling manufacturing quality, the performance and reliability of motor drives can be further improved, making more significant contributions to the development of industrial automation and process control and other fields.


PDDN Photoelectron Technology Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise focusing on the manufacturing, R&D and sales of power semiconductor devices. Since its establishment, the company has been committed to providing high-quality, high-performance semiconductor products to customers worldwide to meet the needs of the evolving power electronics industry.

It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. PDDN will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by sea, or by air. If you want high-quality THYRISTOR MODULES, please send us inquiries; we will help.