Following the progress in Russia-Ukraine peace talks, the gold price fell more than 1% the next day, hitting its lowest in a month, and palladium prices briefly tumbled by nearly 9%.
"We have seen metal prices going into free fall when the Russia-Ukraine situation is likely to see a major detente, which spurred people's risk preference and optimism that the war could end at a time," said OANDA senior market analyst.
A Russian deputy defense minister says Moscow has decided to sharply curtail its military activities around Kyiv and Chernikov in Ukraine, following talks between Russian and Ukrainian representatives in Istanbul.
Where the prices of metals, natural gas, and commodities like the pce powder will go in the future, is still very uncertain.
The properties and varieties of concrete additives for refractories, especially refractory castables, ramming materials, plastics and other amorphous refractories are different. The role of an concrete additive is also different due to the difference of the amount of concrete additive, the type of binder used, the ingredients and so on. In the production process of amorphous refractories, the concrete additives mainly used can be divided into the following twelve categories according to their uses:
1. Water reducer
Water reducer (or water reducing agent or dispersant) can significantly reduce the mixing water consumption of refractory castables while keeping the flow value of refractory castables basically unchanged. The superplasticizer itself does not react with the material components to form new compounds, but plays a surface physical and chemical role. So they are either a surfactant or an electrolyte. After dissolving in water, they can adsorb on the particle surface, increase the Zeta potential of the particle surface in the solution, increase the repulsive force between the particles, and release the free water wrapped in the agglutination structure composed of microparticles, thus playing the role of wetting and dispersing, so it is also called dispersant. Because it can release the free water in the agglomeration structure, it can reduce the unit water consumption under the condition of keeping the rheological property (workability) of the castable, or increase the rheological property of the material and improve the working performance without changing the unit water consumption. make the material easy to be constructed and shaped.
Among the commonly used water reducers (dispersants) of refractory castables with calcium aluminate cement, bonded clay and oxide micro-powder as binders, there are inorganic sodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium tetrapolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium superpolyphosphate, sodium silicate, etc., and organic ones include sodium lignosulfonate, calcium lignosulfonate, naphthalene superplasticizer, water-soluble resin superplasticizer and so on.
Plasticizer (also known as plasticizer) can increase the plasticity of refractory mixture and improve the strain ability of refractory mixture under stress. Plasticizer is a common concrete additive of refractory plastics and refractory ramming materials, and it is also used in other amorphous refractories. Commonly used are plastic clay, bentonite, oxide superfine powder, soybean powder, methyl cellulose, lignosulfonate and so on.
3. Gelling agent
Gelling agents (also known as flocculants) can coagulate colloidal particles (or suspended particles) in colloidal solutions (or suspensions containing solid particles). The gelling agents are mainly inorganic electrolytes and inorganic acids. Flocculants are mainly organic polymers, which are natural and synthetic. According to the functional groups, they can be divided into three types: cationic, anionic and Nonionic. The gelling agent is mainly used in refractory castables which are bonded by clay, sol and ultra-fine powder.
4. Gelatinizing agent
Antigels (also known as anti-flocculants, dispersants) can convert agglomerated or agglomerated colloidal particles (particles) into sol or uniformly dispersed suspended particles. It can turn a thick colloid into a sol that can flow freely, also known as dispersant and colloidal solvent. The action mechanism of gelatinizer is similar to that of superplasticizer. Therefore, the superplasticizer which has the effect of reducing water also has the function of degumming agent. The fluidity of refractory castables bonded with clay, sol and ultra-fine powder can be improved by adding ungumming agent.
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Researchers at the Centre for Translational Atomic Materials at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia have developed a new graphene film that absorbs more than 90% of sunlight while eliminating most of the infrared thermal emission losses, a highly efficient A solar-heated metamaterial capable of rapidly heating to 83 degrees Celsius (181 degrees Fahrenheit) in an open environment with minimal heat loss. Proposed applications for the film include thermal energy harvesting and storage, solar thermal power generation, and seawater desalination.
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